The Henley Passport Index is updated quarterly and includes data on 199 different passports and 227 travel destinations.
In the latest edition, Luxembourg ranks in third place together with Finland, Italy and Spain. Japan and Singapore are the top passports in the ranking, providing access to 192 countries, followed by Germany and South Korea in joint second place (190).
The score reflects travel destinations where no visa is required or where passport holders can obtain a visa, a visitor’s permit or an electronic travel authority (ETA) upon arrival.
Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan came last in the ranking, offering visa-free access to fewer than 30 travel destinations.
There are different criteria to obtain the Luxembourg nationality, for example depending on whether the applicant is a minor or married to a Luxembourg national.
Most commonly, applicants must have lived in the county for five years, pass a Luxembourg language test and attend a civics course. Applicants who have lived in the country for more than 20 years are exempt from the language test but must take at least 24 hours of Luxembourgish lessons.
A petition calling for French or German language skills to be recognised when applying for Luxembourg nationality in September failed to reach a minimum threshold of 4,500 signatures.
Another petition, saying foreigners should be able to receive Luxembourg nationality without having to pass a language test after ten years of being in the country, is still open for signature.